Saturday, May 30, 2015

No Solace in the Church

Photo credit: Flickr Member Smilla2 Some rights reserved

A look at Methodist Church Records in East Tennessee in the Civil War Era

In October 1862 the Holston Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South convened in Athens, Tennessee. Bishop Early presided, whose zeal for the cause of the South may be inferred from these words, which he is reported to have said when about to ordain a class of ministers. Lifting his hands toward heaven he exclaimed, "God forbid that these hands should be laid upon the head of any man disloyal to the Southern Confederacy!"
Rev Jonathan L Mann, then a young member of the Conference, was present and gives the following description:
In order to appreciate the doings of this Conference, we must first remember that the Confederacy was then at the highest climax of its glory, and that all rebeldom was sanguine of certain success. These things inspired (Bishop) Early and his rebel conclave to daring deeds of religious and ecclesiastical chivalry. They were surrounded by rebel soldiers, and cheered on by the presence and curses of the Provost Marshal, at Athens, who might have been frequently seen in the gallery of the Conference room during the sittings of the Conference, swearing what he would do with all the "Tory" or Lincolnite preachers of the Conference. The rebel members now had every thing their own way, without even the show of opposition. No Union member dared to enter his protest against even the most extreme measures that might be offered. Rebel bayonets and rebel prisons awed all of us into silence. Every Union minister of the Conference seemed to say. "If prudence will save my life I will at least be cautious."

Under these circumstances one of the first measures of the Conference was to appoint a committee of investigation, whose business it was to examine the political status of every suspected character of the Conference. The following were that committee: John M M'Teer, James S Kenedy, WH Bates, AG Worley, Carroll Long. Before this inquisitorial committee were arraigned the following brethren WH Rogers, WHH Duggan, Wm C Daily, JA Hyden, PH Reed, John Spears, James Cumming, Thomas H Russell and Thomas P Rutherford- nine in all every one of whom was charged with disloyalty to the Confederacy. (Source: Methodist Review (Google ebook, Volume 53,1871 p. 624)

It is affirmed that Bishop Early, before reading out the appointments said. "Brethren when you go to your several fields of labor, purge the Church of its unworthy members," by which he was understood to mean, "Turn out all persons who are not loyal to the Southern Confederacy." The Conference had set them a worthy example in this kind of work. They were exhorted now to go to their charges and do likewise. Whether the ministers so understood the Bishop or not, or whether they needed any exhortation, when they went to their charges, we are told that they the disloyal portion of the Conference eagerly commenced and zealously prosecuted the work of "purging the Church" of known Unionists, and thus hundreds, if not thousands, were cut off from membership. The preachers could not wait the slow process of a formal citation to appear and a trial by their peers. In many cases a summary process was adopted, and the names of the members deemed unworthy were by the minister stricken from the Church books, and those who were members a moment before were by a simple stroke of the pen dashed into excommunication. For nearly two years there followed a persecution which cannot be appreciated by those who did not feel it, the facts of which when stated would seem almost incredible. (Source: Methodist Review (Google ebook, Volume 53,1871 p. 625)
None of these men were charged with having committed an overt act of treason against the rebel government or even of having committed any act whatever. They were arraigned because rebels believed that their hearts and sympathies were with the Government in its grand struggle to crush an unholy rebellion. Here we have presented to us the strange spectacle of a body of Christian ministers trying its members for their political opinions. Several of these men were among the ablest members of the Conference. Father Cummings was above seventy years of age, still he must be humiliated by a mock trial, and that in his absence by a committee of rebels; his own children in the ministry. Rev JA Hyden was also absent and very sick at the time and his recovery even thought doubtful yet rebel vindictiveness must follow its helpess victim even to the very verge of death (Source: An Appeal to the Records: A Vindication of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in Its Policy and Proceedings Toward the South (Google eBook), Erasmus Q. Fuller, Hitchcock and Walden, 1876, p. 358)

In October 1863 the Conference met at Wytheville Virginia They here expelled Jonathan L Mann, William H Rogers, William Milburn, and WHH Duggan. All of these were expelled for their loyalty to the General Government and no other charges were preferred against them so far as we have been able to ascertain. Hence loyalty to the United States was deemed by the Southern clerical knights a crime sufficient to exclude a Christian minister from the fellowship and holy communion of Christ's Church. Only think of a body of men claiming to be Christian ministers, meeting in Conference and expelling their absent brethren simply for their adherence to the great principles of the Gospel of human freedom and of eternal right.

They were now more hostile toward Unionism than ever before ,and some of them actually began the work of expulsion from the Church for the sin of being loyal to the United States. For the truth of this remark, we could furnish scores of witnesses and victims in different parts of East Tennessee. In the mean time, Union preachers were made to suffer more than ever from the cruel hate and persecution of rebels. Long before this, our present noble Governor WG Brownlow and old Father Cummings had been forced to secrete themselves in the fastnesses of the Smoky Mountains from the prowlings of rebel murderers. WHH Duggan, a true man and a patriot, and then past the meridian of life, had been arrested and driven on quick time for miles through the heat and dust, at the points of rebel bayonets until he fainted and fell to the ground, and has been ever since a perfect wreck mentally and physically. WH Rogers, a firm and faithful man of God was arrested and taken South where for months we believe he was the inmate of the most loathsome of rebel prisons. William Milburn, another zealous and true minister of Christ, who had seen above sixty years of life, was arrested and finally released on condition that he would not pass beyond the limits of his own farm, except to mill and for a physician. John Spears was expelled at the Athens Conference, in their own laconic language for joining the enemies of his country. This was the only charge and for this they expelled him. Others were arrested and forced to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy or otherwise go to prison or to death. Scores of our local brethren were compelled to flee from their homes and take refuge in the Union army, some of whom were afterward brutally murdered. Such was the case with Chaplains Patty and M Call. (Source: An Appeal to the Records: A Vindication of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in Its Policy and Proceedings Toward the South (Google eBook), Erasmus Q. Fuller, Hitchcock and Walden, 1876, p. 31)

James Cummings (1787-1869) Joined Methodist Espiscopal Conference in 1865. Buried in Shiloh, Sevier County. Link

Wm C Daily, (1818- 1897) Joined Methodist Espiscopal Conference in 1865. Buried Woodlawn Cemetery, Knoxville, Tennessee. Link
WHH Duggan (1814- 1867) Joined Methodist Espiscopal Conference in 1865. Buried in Hickory Grove, Mount Vernon, Tennessee. Link
William C Graves Joined Methodist Espiscopal Conference in 1865
J A Hyden, (1828 (now) Loudon County, Tennessee - 1909) Joined Methodist Espiscopal Conference in 1865. Buried Highland Cemetery, Ottawa, Franklin County, Kansas. Link
Jonathan L Mann Chaplain in the 9th Regt Tennessee Cavalry, Joined Methodist Espiscopal Conference in 1865 (February 2, 1839- April 4, 1893) Modesto Citizens Cemetery, Modesto, California Link Military Records; Link His brother, John Wesley Mann (August 9, 1835- May 29, 1897), was also a Methodist minister. He is buried in Old Gray Cemetery, Knoxville, Tennessee

Joseph Milburn Joined Methodist Espiscopal Conference in 1865 Greene County. Buried in Milburnton Church Cemetery in Greene County, Tennessee. Link

William Milburn (1897-1877) Chaplain 8th Tennessee Cavalry, Joined Methodist Espiscopal Conference in 1865. Buried in Milburnton CHurch Cemetery in Greene County, Tennessee. Link

William Hurd Rogers, (22 Mar 1813 - 17 - Mar 1891) Living in Blount County in 1863, buried in Fort Hill Cemetery, Cleveland, Tennessee) Link Article about the Rogers family: Link
Thomas P Rutherford (1835- 1922) Buried Thorn Grove, Knox County,Tennessee. Link
Patrick Henry Reed, (1830- 1904) Oak Grove Cemetery, Greeneville, Tennessee Link
John Spears, (-1906) In 1866 Brother Spears made application for admission in the Indiana Conference, Riverside Cemetery at Spencer, Indiana

Brother Spears who died in 1873 the following extract is taken: After speaking of Brother Spears work in the Holston Conference, he (John J Hight) says, "By the autumn of 186, the storm of Civil War was desolating all the regions of Western North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee, but he in company, with such men as Parson Brownlow and others, was true to his country. At the Conference in the same year, he was granted a superannuated relation, and returned with his wife through the mountains to her father's home in the Sequatchie Valley. At the next session of the Conference there was, accorded him, the distinguished honor of an expulsion from the Methodist Episcopal Church South, for his devotion to his country, but before this happened, he had crossed the mountains into Kentucky, and without safety beyond the Ohio River, he enlisted in the Union Army, and was commissioned chaplain in the Sixth Tennessee Regiment. Link His command stationed at Cumberland Gap. Toward the autumn of the same year when the clouds of Civil War began to grow more gloomy than ever, he determined to attempt the rescue of his family. After a perilous journey, found his wife and children at her father's house. The most of her relation chose the Southern side of the contest, but she determined to share the fate of her husband and country. One horse was their only hope transportation. For more than two hundred miles through the mountains, beset with innumerable dangers, he with his wife and two children. journeyed. They reached the Union camp at Cumberland Gap just in time join in the celebrated retreat of General Morgan's forces at that place. He secured a buggy and preceded the army. At Mt Sterling, Ky, they were captured and detained. Here every inducement, including large offers of money, was presented to him to abandon the seemingly sinking fortunes the Union and to return to Tennessee. But husband and wife were not to moved from their purpose ,and after being robbed of horse and buggy other things, were set down in the street at Sharpville, Ky, penniless. From this place they made their way, as best they could, to Indiana where he left his family and returned to the army. It may truly be said of him that he "wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth;" that he had "trials of cruel mockings, yea moreover of bonds and imprisonments."

In 1866 Brother Spears made application for admission in the Indiana Conference. He had no certificate of transfer from the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, from which he had been expelled, and his only recommendation was his parchments and certificate of an honorable discharge as a chaplain in the Union Army. His was a peculiar case, but when it had been fully explained and the statement made by his Presiding Elder, that he had been expelled from the ministry and membership of the Methodist Episcopal Church South because he refused to pray for Jeff Davis and the Southern Confederacy, the Bishop remarked, "That is recommendation enough," and he was admitted. The Indiana Conference never had a more loyal kind and lovable member than John Spears.

Civil War Service Link

August 5, 1906, he entered into rest. His body lies in Riverside Cemetery at Spencer, Indiana Link

(Source: Minutes of the ... Session of the Indiana Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Volumes 71-77 (Google eBook), Methodist Episcopal Church. Indiana Conference, p. 306-308)

Sunday, May 24, 2015

Soldiers Buried in Knoxville National Cemetery 1863-1864


Charles Abbott, James Abbot ,John Adaline, Benjamin Adams,H B Adams, James Adams, James H Adams, John Adams,Melanethon Grover Adams, MC Adams,WB Adams, Luke Adkins, John Akaline (also listed as Adaline), Volney M Aldridge, Alexander Aldridge, Robert Alexander, Robert Allen, Edwin W Allyn, Daniel H Anderson, Demmick Anderson , GH Anderson, George W Anderson,George W Anferson, Jr. Pleasant Anderson, William R Anderson, Londridge Anfield, William Anglestin, Elijah Annette, Jeremiah Antle,Wulf Van Appledoorn, Randolph Applegate, Jonas Arbaugh
Joseph Arbaugh, Darwin Archer, James Armstrong, Charles W. Arney, Samuel Arnok, Joseph Arnold, Samuel Arnold, Robert Artherly, A W Ashove, Thomas Askern, Theodore H Aspinwall, George Atchler, Robert Atherly, Milton Atkinson, Samuel Austerhaus, Miron Avery, J Babston,Bartin Bailey, Charles Bailey, Larey Bailey,Laughton Bailey,Richard Bailey, William Bailey, James Bailling, Daniel W Baker, Francis M Baker, Henry S Baker, Jno Baker, John Baker, Tinbrook Baker,George A Bales, Isaac Balesales, John Ballot, Jno Barber,William Barkley,James Barcum, Levi Barker, Bartis Barnes, Elijah Barnes, James Barnes, Joseph Barnes, Lewis Barnett, Elmore Barnhill, David Barnum, James Barcum,Wm H Barrett, James Basinger, Dana Bastwick, Lyman Bates, Stephen M Bates, William Battishill, TB Baxter, James Baysinger, Thomas Beare, George Beckwith. Richard Bedee, David E Beebee, HH Beers, Andrew Belcher, James W Bell, JA Bender, William Benjamin, Allen Bennett, George H Bennett, John M Benson , EA Berkshire, Andrew J Berry, Alvers Bershers, Alfred Beuche, Josiah Bigham, JA Binder, Thomas J Bingham, Tobias Binley, William Bird, Joseph Bishop, Francis Black, James P Black, Frank Blair, James Blancet, John H Blanchard, Isom Blankenship, John Blaugh, CB Bliss, GS Blodgett, Seneca Blood, Jacob Bobb, Solomon Boles, James Bolin, D Bolter, Ezekiel J Bondurant, Alfred Bonner, H Booth, John Bootman, Levi Botsford, Robert S Boston, D Botler, Levi Botsford, Andrew Bottoms, Jacob Boucher, John Bowmaster, Joseph Bouty, John H Bowers, William Bowles, S Bowman, DE Boyd, Henry Boyle,Thomas Bragg, JH Branchet, D Bryant, Fidello L Bray, Christopher Brechtal, Calvin Breedin, Ezra A Brewster, Peter Brickey, JJ Bridges, Emory Britt,John Brock, Starling Brock, Wm Bronswell, Alfred Brookhill, David Brooks, Greenberry Brooks, John Brooks, CW Brown, FM Brown, Marion Brown, Solomon Brown, TM Browm, VW Brown, CW Browne, James Bruner, Esquire Buckles, Alfred Bueche, John Burgess, John P Burket, Edwin Burrows, Marion Burton, James Bush, B Butt, MA Butterman, Fred Byron, Harrison Byron, James Byron, Joseph Cahill, John Cain, William Cain, William W Caines, Charles M Caldwell, Richard Caldwell, Hamilton Calhoun, William Callahan, John D Camel, Jacob Cammons, Lewis Campbell, Preston Campbell, William Cane, Augustine Canfield, Julius Cannon, William W Caines, Elbert Cannon, Julius Cannon, Richard Cantell, Oliver Capelman, Edward Carberry, Dugign Cardrick, Levi Carico, JB Carman, Nicholas Carney, Andrew T Carpenter, JC Carpenter, Levi Carico, W Carr, D Carrier, John N Carswell, George W Carter, John F Carthan, John Cartney, AP Case, JH Caty, Peter Cavatt, WU Cavens, Martin Cersey, Lorenzo S Chamberlain, Lemuel Cambers, Aaren Channell, David S Chapin, Thomas Chapman, Simeon Chapple, Solomon H Cherry, Joseph Childers, MJ Chitting, Robert Christie, Clarkston Clage, Carey Clark, Cornelius Clark, EJ Clark, G Clark, John Clark, Hiram Clawson, Thomas Clawson, GJ Cleaver, James Clingman, Josiah C Coates
Miles Coates, George Coats, Samuel Cobb, William Cody, DE Cole, George Cole, Martin Cole, Jeremiah Coleman, John Colson, David Coller, James E Collins,John Collins, Joshua Collins, Jeremiah Colman, Charles Colwell, Thomas Conaway, William Cone, David Conis, Thomas Conway, Adam Cook, George Cook, John Cooper, Leroy Cope, Silas Cope, Samuel Work Corbin, B Corkill, Patrick Corkron, Peter Cornell, Sr, Peter Corwell, HC Corwin, John Milton Corwin, Marion E Cotter, Cornelius Coulson, Warren W Coulter, BW Courson, Isaac Cowden, George Cox, Luman C Cox, William Crabtree, Gilbert B Craft, AF Craig, Lafayette Craig , Joshia Crandall, AW Craft, J Craw, DW Crawford, Duncan Crawford, WS Crawford, Hazel T Creators, Benjamin F Crecelins, John W Creek, Harrison Gregswell, HF Cretons, MS Crins, Ezra Crocker, Stephen Crofer, David Crofoot, James Cromley, James Cross, James Crosser, J Crow, William Crower, William Cruit, Andrew T Crumley, Francis Crumpton, Andrew J Culbertson, Jessie D Culbertson, David Culler, HC Cullums, Thomas Culwell, J Cummings, Perry C Cummings, RB Cunningham, Washington Cummingham, Edward Cutler, James Cutler, Edward Cutter, John Cutter, Eli Dacker, Harry Dailey, Henry Dailey, Alexander Davidson, HC Davidson, George M Davis, Isaac Davis, JB Davis, Jacob Davis, Lozenzo D Davis, Charles Decalier, Eli Decker, Jacob Decker, Jacob N Decker, James Dee, Jones Deford, Oscar Delong, Thomas C Denham, Josiah Dennis, Huston Denton, Francis Dergan, Thomas Deshler, George Devinney, Henry C Diebler, Thomas Dillman, Oliver Dilman, John Diveer, George Diving, Noah Dixon, Jamws W Dixon, William Dobbins, Oaris L Dobbs, Joseph Dobby, Joseph Doeffler, Edward Doll, David Dommey, William Donalson, Calvin Donnelly, Henry Dossett, William H Doughty, Alex B Dowell, David Downie, Jacob Drake, William B Drake, William L Dudley, Francis Dugan, George Morley Dugger, Joseph Duncan, William Landon Dunegan, John Dweer, Ephraim F Dyer, Jesse Eads, William Early, Oliver Earnest, Thomas Easterling, Jesse Edens, Barton Edsall, Edward Edwards, JN Edwards, Milton Edwards, Thomas Eisely, William H Eisenhower, Levi Elbert, Adam Eldridge, Adin L Eldridge, William Eldridge, David Eller, JW Ellis, John Ellis, William D Ellis, Holden Elmerpat, T Elsboy, Camaliro Emerick, Joel M Enrit, William P Epperson, Agustus Erickson, John Ervin, John Erving, Abraham Eshleman, James Esie, Thomas Esterling, Andrew J Estis, Jackson Evans, John Evans, George B Ewing, John D Eyer, Rubin R Faris, Joseph Farman, Abraham Farran, Thomas Farrand, Adam Farrin, Peter R Faulk, John J Faulkinghoe, William Faybury, Isaac Feinder, Chauncey Felton, David Arthur Fenner, Frank M Ferguson, M Ferguson, Thomas Ferrill, Aaron Fields,Orrin Fields, Isaac Fiender, J Fincher, Richard R Fisk, Samuel A Fleener, James M FLemming, Willis Fleshmar, Josiah Fletcher, Lawson Fletcher, Henry Flinn, W Flishman, William Flockmers, Jomas Flora, Eugene Ford, Josephus Ford, Leander C Ford, Hiram Fortner, Phillip Fost, CA Foster, Peter Foulk, George W Foust, Wiley G Foust, Oscar F Fox, Robert Nelson Fox, JW Franklin, John W Franklin, John Frederick, Francis French, Henry C French, R Frew, Abraham Frezlich, William Frolich, Alvin Fuller, E Fulton, John M Gaines, Sullivan Gaines, W G Gallocks, Charles Galpin, Henry B Gano, Urias B Gardner, Isaac RW Garretson, John Garrison, John H Garver, Mitchell Garvin, Jacob Gaskill, James M Gates, Jesse Smart Gates, WH Gates, TK Gay, Solomon Gee, John W George, Thomas German, Charles Franklin Gervin, George Gevitt, James W Gibson, Charles Gifford, German Gifford, William A Gill, William Gillett, Joesph Gilley, George Gillham, James Gilmore, Raymond Wesley Givens, Ezra J Glass, Joseph Glass, William Glass, George Gnitt, George W Godby, Giles Godfrey, Harrison Godling, Calvin L Goldston, PA Goleanor, Jacob Good, WH Gooden, Richard Goodhastler, HC Goodrich, Jno Goodrich, Jackson Gordon, William Gourley, Charles Graef, George Graham, Marion B Graham, H Grant, William Graves, TK Gray, William A Gray, Peter Green, Samuel Green (2), William Green, John Greer, John Gregory, William Gridley, Silas H Grogan, Joseph Grubs, Hiram T Guard, Harrison Gum, Jacob Gwinn, Charles Hahn, Alonzo Haight, Jesse Haild, Joshua Haines, William C Haley, Almond Hall, Edward Hall, James M Hall, Martin Hall, Thomas Hall, William H Hall, Francis M Halley, James Halliday, Reuben Hamblin, James Hamilton, , Wesley Hamilton, George Hammond, Henry Hammond, Robert Hampson, DS Hanah, Stephen Hanaway, William T Hanna, Decatur Hanner, William Hannman, Lucas C Hannum, Arnst Hanschal, Benj Hansford, Christian Hardin, Richard Hardwick, William Harle, George Harris, Morgan Harris, RP Harris, David Harsh, Nathan Harsh, Robert Hart, William Hart, Francis M Hartley, A Hartmn, Eather Hartman, Charles H Harvey, Jacob Harvey, William Harvey, Ebeneezer Harwood, Edwin Harwood, Ephraim Hatton, Fred Hatts, John Haus, FM Hawley, John Haws, Delos Hayes, John Hayes, Abna S Hazen, James M Heany, Homer B Heath, Geise Hickman, Lawrence Heming, Gustavus Hemple, CC Henderson, Clinton D Henderson, Robertson Henderson, David A Hendicks, MR Henry, Samuel Henry, John M Hepp, James W Hersley, Morris Hesler, Daniel Heston, Joseph J Hibbs, Alfred Hickman, Ira E Higgins, Joel Phelps Higley, Bartlett Hill, Calrk Hill, HC Hill, John W Hill, Richmond Hill, William Hill, Hamilton Hoag, John Hoag, Fred Hodel, John Hodge, Vergil Hodstale, Lorenz Hoerning, Isaac Hoff, William D Hoff, John D Hoffman, Charles Hohn, Michael Hoist, Elmore Holden, Elmore Holden, John Holdman, James Holiday, St Holland, James Holiday, Henry J Hollinger, Elias Homes, Andrew J Honchines, William Honeycut, Abraham Hoover, John Hoover, Thomas Horborn, John Horn, Michael Horst, Orville Hosford, Newton P Howard, Orville Howard, George Howarth, E Hudson, James Hudson, JM Huett, Lawrence Hufnagle, Arthur Hughes, Gome R Hughes, Guilford C Hughes, James Hughes, John W Hughes, James Hughs, George H Hull, HH Hull, John Hulten, Hiram Hults, James Hunter, Marion Huntington, John Huntoon, William Hurless, Joshua Hurt, Henry Hurston, James Hutchinson, Smith Hutchinson, Curtis Hutchison, John D Hyde, Lawrence Hyland, Anthony Hyland,Samuel Ingersol, James Ingle, Samuel Ingram, Charley Wilford, Thomas Irwin, John W Jackson, Joseph Jackson, WT Jackson, CO Jacobs, Alexander Jarvis, Stephen Jaycox, Barker Jeans, William Jenkins, Nelson Jenks, Reuben Jennings, Thomas J Johmson, Bailey Johnson, David W Johnson, Elias Johnson, Harvey Johnson, JM Johnson, Jackson Johnson, James Johnson (2), MW Johnson, Minea Johnson, Myron Johnson, Presley Johnson, SM Johnson, Simon M Johnson, AH Jones, Charles Jones, James Jones, Jeremiah Jones, WL Jones, Jackson Jordan, F Judd, Cambridge Justice, Samuel Keefer, Nicholas Keller, Robert Kelly, Isaac Kelmer, Milton Kennedy, William Kennedy, E Kenzie, JH Kerelfield, Frederick Kerelmin, James Kerr, Washington C Kearney, Andrew Kessinger, George Kibbee, CH Kimball, Jacob Kimball, Benjamin Kimberling, Richard Kimman, Eli Kimmons, Emanuel King, JC King, Joseph King, Thomas King, Washington C Kinney, Joseph Kinsey, William Kirby, John W Kircher, William Kirk, R Kirkham, William Kirchner, W Kisner, Godfrey Kline, Henry Kline, Cyrus Knight, Everette Knight, F Knight, Zephaniah Krall, C Kranworth, Joseph Kridler, A Lampkin, Phenius L Lane, John H Langley, Asaph Lantz, John Lawson, Goliah Leadbetter, AA Lee, BF Lee, JJ Lee, John J Lee, John W Lee, Mathias TS Lee, William Lee, Joseph Leonard, Robert Leroy, Rudolph Leuderking, William Lewis, William Bayliss Lewis, Wilson A Lewis, Henry Librook, Joseph Lientz, Solomon Lighty, James Linderman (3), Randall Linsey, Robert Linton, Lewis Linville, Gilbert Litchfield, Levi Little, WH Little, Harlon Livingston, RL Load, Charles Lock, Oscar Long, William H Long, Emmitt Losure, Rudolph Louderking, Absalom Love, William Lucas, Charles Lund, Adolphus A Lunsden, Henry S Lutz, David Lyon, William Lyons, James D Lysle, George Lytle, Henry Mack, HR Madard, Jeremiah Madden, Samuel Mahoney, Samuel S Maloon, Lewis Maynard, Zachariah Mannin, John S Manning, Stewart Mansol, John Mapier, Phillip Markley, Elihu Farmer Marshall, George Marshall (2), John Marten, George F Martin, Luther Martin, William H Martin, GP Mason, Samuel Masser, John W Masters, Robert Mathews, Thomas Mattis, James Mayberry, John Mayer, William Mayer, John D Mayes, Alonzo D Maynard, JD Mays, Daniel McBand, Robert McBride, Robert McCabe, Martin McCam, Martin McCann, Thomas McCarney, James McCartney, Hohn H McCarty, George W McCausland, Joshua McClane, Jessie R McClaud, John F McClelland, John F McClintock, Jesse McCloud, James H MsCollough, homas B McConnell, William McCormick, George McCostinell, George McCrarey, Edward McCuen, James H McCullough, Hector McDonald, Missouri McFarland, James McFarn, William McFerrin, John McFyan, Joseph H McGinnis, Phillip McGinnis, Green McGuire, Jacob McGuire, William McHenry, James McKenna, Laughlin McKenzie, Aaron McLain, Joshua McLain, Thomas Harrison McLain, William H McLain, John McLaughlin, Robert McMahan, George W McMichael, J McMillan, John W McMillen, John W McMillen, WA McMinds, Joseph McNabb, James S McNemer, JS McNewman, JH McPherson, John B McPherson, BP McSline, Charles S Mead, Taylor Meadows, Amish Meek, James Meeks, Harold J Melloy, William M Melond, Robert Merlin, SH Merrill, Jno W Merriman, George Messer, Hamilton M Messer, SM Messer, William Metcalf, Nickolaus Meyer, James M Miles, Stephen N Miles, James H Mills, John W Miller, William Miller, James Milligan, John Milligan, David H Mills, Adam Minehart, TW Miner, Theodore Miner, Charles Minmire, Henry Minnick, Theodore Minor, William Mires, Robert J Mitchell, Jacob Mitchelson, Pleasant Monday, John Montgomery, James O Moore, Sylvester Moore, Joshua Morehouse, John R Morgan, C Morris, George Morris, Joseph Morris, William Morris(2), Edwin Morse, Sylvester Mort, Edwin Moss, John R Mote, Theophilus J Mountz, John H Murphy, William G Murphy, David Murray, John Murray, William Mussrole, Nichols Myers, William H Myers, John Napier, JW Nash, Lewis Needler, Bazeleel Neely, William Neff, Daniel Neil, Arnold Nelson, John H Nelson, John W Newland, John Nichols, William Nichols, Daniel Nicholson, Albert Niles, Garnett Niles, MG Niles, George W Noland, William Numbers, Jacon Nyhart, Jeremiah Oaks, Joel Odelway, Stephen Ogden, Joseph Oliver, Thomas O'Neal, Joel Ordway, Jesse Osborn, William Osborn, Elisha Osteen, Lewis Ottinger, Daniel Ottoe, B Paff, William Page, David Palmer, John A Parker, James Parrish, Alexander Patterson, EH Patterson, John M Patterson, Jasper M Payne, Jacob Pearce, James H Peckenpaugh, Freeman Peden, John Peden, James A Pegg, John B Pendleton, Charles C Pennyman, N People, Joseph Peoples, David Perkey, Robinson Perkins, Thomas Pero, Frank Perry, Thomas Paw, Lorenzo D Phelps,James Pherson, David Phillips, Elijag Phillips, Emanuel Phillips, HM Phillips, Amos Pickett, Marion M Pickle, George L Pierce, George W Pierce, John Pierce, C Piett, George Platte, Benj Poff, George W Pool, TJ Poole, William Poormans, William H Post, HB Potter, JB Potter, William H Potter, William Potts, Miner Powell, William Powell, Hiram J Preeos, John F Preetz, William Presley, Charles Prestage, John B Price, John M Pritchitt, James Arthur Pritchett, Jeremiah Probus, H Prossah, IA Quick, Edward Rafty, S Raisby, JF Rardin, Marvin Rathburn, James P Ray, LA Ray, Stephen Ray, SS Reaves, JB Redhead, Moses Redman, Reed B Miles, Charles Reed, Fackrider Reeder, William Rees, Isaac Reimer, SR Reins, SW Reist, Albert Reity, Joel Rennelle, Samuel W Rest, Archibold Reups, JW Rice, William Rice, Chas E Richards, John Richards, Thomas Richards, LaFayette Ricketts, Van B Rider, Dwight Ripley, Jeremiah A Ristine, John Ritter, George Ritzell, GW Ro, Isaac N Roach, James Roach, James Porter Roach, Archabald Roads,William Roark, Hial RObers, James Robertson, David Roberts (2), Frank Roberts, George W Roberts, George Washington Roberts, Hial Roberts, John Roberts (2), Robt Roberts, William Roberts, RR Robins, Albert Robinson, David Robinson, John A Robinson, Samuel Robinson, Thomas Robinson, Alfred L Rockhill, John Rodgers, Henry Rodolph, Leo Rogers, John Rogers, Leo Rogers, D Roll, Myhue Rollins, William Roon, Daniel Ross, Elijah J Ross, WC Ross, A Roth, Charles Rothweiller, John W Royce, Henry Rudolph, Charles Russell, McDaniel Russell, WD Russell, Jeremiah A Rustine, HK Ruth, Albert Rutty, Felix Ryan, Henry Sabal, Jefferson Saborech, John Saddler, Abraham Saidley, William H Saiss, John Salisbury, John Henry Salling, John Salsberry, Josiah Salter, Charles Sanders, JohnR Sanders, Samuel Sandusky, Phillip Sash, William Savage, William Sawyers, William Sazer, Charles F Schiltmeyer, Henry Schlappi, John Schrock, John Schroth, David Schultz, Reinhard Schumacher, Peter Schwain, Isaiah Scott, WW Scott, John M Scripps, John Scroth, John D Scutchel, David Sears, James Seaton, Marrett R Seaton, John Seay, John Sefford, Canaan Sellers, Joshua Sellers, John Sensiby, Lemuel Severs, Charles Seward, George Shaffer, CW Shamblin, Daniel Shanks, Cyrus Sharp, William F Sharp, Benj F Shaver, Joseph Shaver, AA Shaw, Jackson MC Shaw, William Shaw, Andrew Shawson, Patrick Shea, James Shearer, William Sheeley, Jno W Shepard, Daniel O Sheperd, JW Shepard, John Phillip Shew, Jacob Shimkwiler, Lewis Shirar, James Shoart, Abraham B Shockey, Elias J Shockley, James Showsh, L Shrier, William HH Shuler, Abraham Sidla, Wesley Simes, Robert M Simmons, Thomas A Simmons, John T Simms, John W Simpson, A Jepth Singer, Zachariah Sisco, Adoniram Judson Slafter, James Slaven, William C Sleepe, Charles Small, John Smallman, John Smelcer, John Smiley, Charles Smith (2), Elza C Smith, George Smith, Harrison Smith, Henry Smith(2), Henry A Smith, Henry G Smith, I Smith, James A Smith, John Smith, John F Smith, Joseph Smith, LE Smith, Marion Smith, WC Smith, William Smith (2), Newton Snodgrass, Hand Snyder, John Snyder, Abraham Soden, Daniel Sofera, Baldwin H Solomon, LE Solomon, LaFayette Souders, Joseph Southard, George W Southerland, John Southers, William Sozer, Jacob Spain, Alfred Spears, John Spence, Samuel Spencer, Conrad Sprinkler, John D Sproul, John Stafford, Joseph M Staing, Comfort E Stanley, FM Stanley, John M Stantt, James Starnes, Belden Starr, John M Stautt, William H Stearman, John S Steel, William Steel, James Steele, James S Steen, John O Stelles, David Stephen, David Stephens, George Stephenson, Isaac Sterword, Virgil Stevens, Joseph Stevenson, Isaac Steward, Edward Stewart, David Stober, Geo G Stone, James Stone, James S Stone, NC Storie, Oliver B Stout, David Stover, Elias Franklin Strain, S Strickland, Joseph M String, Thomas Stripling, John G Strolls, Edward Strong, Frank Strong, Frank Strong, John Sughrue, Geo Sullivan, Joseph Sutter, Chas H Sutton, Jmaes Sutton, William C Sutton, Alfred Swafford, William Swanger, John Swanson, Jeremiah D Swart, Benjamin F Swatzel, Francis H Swatzel, Abram B Swearegen, J Sweat, J Sweeney, Newton Sweeny, J Swinney, William Swiss, Jeremiah Swort, Eli Wilbur Syers, Elijah Talbert, JV Talbot, John Talley, GW Talman, William Winfield Tanner, Andrew J Tant, Alexander Tarwater, Robert Tate (2), George Wood Taulman, Henry Taylor, John Taylor, Sam W Tate (2), William Taylor, Aaron Templeton, Wesley A Templeton, William M Templeton, Thomas Thatcher, George W Thayer, Abram Thomas, Henry Thomas, J Thomas, Jasper Thomas,John M Thomas, Thomas G Thomas, William Thomas, Zenas J Thomas, CR Thompson, Calvin Thompson, ET Thompson, Edward Thompson, Eli S Thompson, Ennu Thompson, James Thompson, William Thompson, Charles Thorton, Winfield Throckmorton, James Thurman, JP Tice, Eli Tinker, Reuben Tinkham, Charles Tipton, Robert Tirrey, Calvin Todd, Elijah Tolberd, IV Tolbert, LaFayette Tompkins, William Tooper, Edwin R Totten, LaFayette Townsend, Tasker Townsend, John Trafford, HC Tranum, Hugh Traxler, Edwin S Treadway, John J Tremon, Allen Trent, John J Trickett, William Trinkle, Virgil Tripp, James Trowbridge, William Tucker, Amos Tutle, Charles Twining, Eli Twining, Wilson Twining, SM Tyler, Joseph Humphrey Updike, Matthew S Updyke, Henry P Upton, William Henry Urquhart, Silas Valentine, Andrew Van Vickle, William Van Fleet, Henry Van Wert, Aaron VanAtter, David G Vance, John Vance, Pleasant Vandergrave, Robert Vanderpool, Edwin Van Dusen, Henry Vanhauser, John Van Houghton, James Van Sickle, William Van Wie, Alfred Vare, jacob Vassler, JW Vaulps, McFarland Vest, Isaac Viene, Aaron Waddle, Robert D Wade, David B Wadling, Benjamin F Walker, Charles Walker, Fredk N Walker, Isaac Walker, John Walker (2), John T Walker, PB Walker, Thomas Walker, William A Walker, Jones Wallace, William P Wallace, David Walker, David F Walker, Lemuel Walkers, David P Wandling, Arthur Ward, John Ward, William H Ward, Horace Warner, John J Watkins, Francis M Watson, John S Watson, TM Watson, M Wyatt, Samuel Watters, Isaac Watts, GW Weakley, George F Webster, John Weir, Daniel Welch, Louis Welch, JJ Wells, Joseph W Wells, Thomas Wells, William W Wells, Daniel Welsh, August Werts, Joseph Wesley, Devillard West, James West, John West (2), SD West, Jonathan Westfall, Daniel Weston, Matthew Francis Wethington, Chester Wetmore, Jerry Whaley, Harrison Wheeler, Richard Wheeler, Smauel B Whipple, William Whitehead, B Whitlock, Charles Whitman, Curtis E Whitman, William Whittaker, John A Whitten, Philander Wickham, Joseph H Wicks, Frederick Wilard, William Wilcox, George Wilder, David Wilds, Jeremiah Wilkins, DD Wilkinson, Frederick Willard, Anson Williams, David Williams, GW Williams, George Williams, JR WIlliams, Mark Williams, William Willis, Henry Wilpor, GP Wilson, Isaac Wilson, JP Wilson, Marion Wilson, Samuel Wilson, William Wilson, William Winn, Emanuel Wire, Charles Wise, E Wise, Peter Wise, Samuel Wise, John Wiseman, Alfred Witt, Aaron Woddle, Homer C Wolvin, Thomas M Wood, Ag Woods, F Woods, James Woods, Andrew D Woodson, CC Woolvin, W Worthington, Garret Wright, Lewis Wright, Jacob Wyatt, James Wyatt, George Yapp, H Yeagle, Henry Yeagley, David Young, Henry Young, Matthew Young, Silas Young, Asa Zeller, Jojn G Ziller, John G Zillman, Alenzo D Zimmans, WIlliam N Zook

Thursday, May 21, 2015

Winter Camp 1863-64

Second Michigan Infantry

The extreme suffering from cold and hunger of Burnside's army at Knoxville was without a parallel in the whole war. Following is a memorandum of an inspection of one brigade which unquestionably represented the condition of Burnside's entire army at that time: 
Regiments in the brigade: Second Michigan Infantry, One Hundredth Pennsylvania, Twentieth Michigan Infantry, Seventh Michigan Infantry, Provost Guard
Without underclothing: 374
No shoes: 386
No blankets: 65
No overcoat: 471
No tents: 218
No socks: 657
No pantaloons: 295
No coats: 186
(Source: Michigan in the War, Michigan. Adjutant-General's Department, State Printers, 1882)


Michigan Seventeenth Infantry

On the raising of the siege the regiment participated in the pursuit of the enemy as far as Bean's Station, but falling back to Blain's Cross Roads, it there encamped until the 16th of January 1864. From the commencement of the retreat to Knoxville, during the siege and the movements subsequent thereto, and while at Blain's Cross Roads the regiment endured much hardship and privations. Living on quarter rations foraged from an almost destitute country, their sufferings were greatly increased by the want of clothing. On an inspection made during the intensely cold weather in January it was found that some were entirely without shoes, and others nearly barefooted, a large number were without overcoats, and but few had a change of underclothing. The regiment marched to Strawberry Plains on the 16th of January. On the 20th, our forces having withdrawn the regiment, was left to guard the crossing of the Holston river. January 21st, it was engaged in skirmishing with the enemy, but on the following day fell back to near Knoxville, skirmishing with the rebel cavalry during the movement. On the 24th, it broke camp near Knoxville and participated in the advance to Morristown, falling back to Mossy creek March 2d, where it remained until the return to Morristown on the 12th. On the 14th, with a small body of cavalry, the regiment engaged in a reconnaissance to the bend of Chucky river, seven miles from Bull's Gap, where the enemy were in force. Finding two battalions of rebel cavalry posted at the mouth of Lick creek, the regiment forded the stream and forced the enemy's position, the rebels fleeing and leaving their camp baggage and a number of arms and horses. Marching from Knoxville the regiment on the 21st proceeded to Nicholasville, Ky. (Source: Michigan Seventeenth Infantry)

Longstreet's Winter Headquarters in Russellville Link

The highest praise is due to officers and men of both battalions for gallantry on the field and the patience and fortitude with which they endured their labors and exposure to the inclement weather, with only the summer allowance of blankets and tents, and in great need of clothing and shoes."
"The artillery horses suffered severely and some were lost for lack of horseshoes. Our only source of supply for over a month what could be collected from dead horses." Report of Col E Porter Alexander C 8 Artillery Chief of Artillery (Congressional Serial Set, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1891, p. 481)

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Brother against Brother?

Just before the war:
Thomas Beals and Martha Emeline White moved to Mill Bend in Hawkins County from Greene County sometime between 1850 and 1860.  In 1860, they are living with their children: Allison W (19), John FM (13), Carter (15), Matilda (11), James (3) and Jackson C (1). Thomas is a farmer with $1,000 in real estate and $350 in personal property.

At this time, Mill Bend had a post office (Henry S Burem was postmaster). It was located about 6 miles from Rogersville and had a Methodist Episcopal church, one store, one saw mill and grist mill. The post office served about 600 residents.

It was on the South side of the Holston river near the line of the Tennessee and Virginia (South side of the Holston River) and the Rogersville and Jefferson railroads (a spur that was being constructed from Rogersville to Bull's Gap). At the time of the Civil War, the railroad bridge had not yet been built and a ferry was used to cross the river.

On 12 July 1862, Carter Milburn enlisted in the First Tennessee Cavalry, Co K. He mustered out on 14 June 1865 in Nashville, Tennessee.

On 21 March 1863, Allison Woodville enlisted in Co K 59th Tennessee Infantry.
AW was captured at Vicksburg on 4 July 1863
He was paroled at Vicksburg on 10 July 1863.

On 25 September 1863, in Jonesboro, John F M enlisted in the 8th Calvary, Co I. He mustered out on on 11 September 1865 in Knoxville.

After Carter was paroled at Vicksburg, he returned to Hawkins County.

There are no records to confirm that the brothers saw each other during the war.  John FM was sick and he was treated by a soldier in his unit with something that cause permanent kidney damage. It was during John FM's illness that John Simpson Beals visited his cousin frequently.  John Simpson writes about these visits in John FM Bail's Civil War pension application.  John S and John FM were neighbors as well as cousins.

It isn't hard to imagine that their Mother thought about her boys in quiet times while she was mending clothes by the fire or at night after everyone else was asleep.  Trips to town or the mill, as well as church would have provided opportunities to hear the latest news as well.

There in no indication of any hostilities between the brothers after the War.  John FM married Delphia Coldwell in 1866, Carter married Sarah M Myers in 1866, Allison married Dolly Stacy in 1867.  Carter was married in Greene County and John and AW were married in Hawkins. 

Carter left Hawkins County and moved West, eventually settling in the Memphis area.  AW remained in Hawkins County and John and Delphia moved to the Rheatown area of Greene County around 1875.

Friday, May 15, 2015

Seige of Knoxville

Fort Sanders and College

About 6 AM on Sunday, November 29th, the enemy opened a heavy artillery fire upon Fort Sanders, to which no reply was made, because our limited supply of ammunition made it necessary to reserve it for use at a more critical moment. The fire continued for about twenty minutes and then slackened, whereupon the columns moved to the assault, and were at once met by all the fire that could be concentrated upon them from our lines. Encountering the wire entanglements, their organization was somewhat disturbed, but the movement was not seriously checked thereby, nor did the slight abatis retard it. Although suffering from the terribly destructive fire to which they were subjected, they soon reached the outer brink of the ditch. There could be no pause at that point, and, leaping into the ditch in such numbers as nearly to fill it, they endeavored to scale the walls. Having no scaling ladders, a portion of the men, scrambling over the shoulders of their comrades planted, the battle flags of the 13th and 17th Mississippi and the 16th Georgia upon the parapet, but every man who rallied to them was either killed or captured and the flags were taken.

Meanwhile those who remained in the ditch found themselves under a deadly flank fire of musketry and canister, supplemented by shells thrown as hand-grenades from inside the fort, without the slightest possibility of returning a blow. Advance and retreat were about equally difficult, and it needed but a very short exposure to convince them that if any were to leave the ditch alive it could only be by the promptest surrender. Those who were able to walk were brought through the ditch to the south-eastern angle and there entered our lines as prisoners. Such of the assaulting forces as had not entered the ditch fell back, at first sullenly and slowly, but flesh and blood could not stand the storm of shot and shell that was poured upon them, and they soon broke in confused retreat.

The assault had been gallantly made, but was repulsed in little more time than is required to describe it. When the result became apparent Longstreet directed the withdrawal of the supporting brigade, but the order did not reach Anderson in time to prevent his troops from pushing on as though the assault had been successful. They swerved however somewhat to their left, and attacked a short distance to the eastward of the designated point, only to meet with as decided, though not so bloody, a repulse.

The assaulting columns were rallied under partial cover some five or six hundred yards from Fort Sanders and there reorganized but no further open attempt to carry our lines was made.

Many reasons have been assigned for the failure of this assault, and there some difference of opinion in regard to the matter. Some of those opposed to us, of unquestioned ability and fairness, have attributed it to the warning given us by taking our picket line the night before, the insufficient use of their artillery and the improper direction taken by two of the columns, resulting in their intermingling and consequent confusion. The opinion has been confidently expressed that a subsequent assault would have been successful. All this assumes, first, that we were not already vigilant and waiting for the attack; second, that a heavy and continued artillery fire would have greatly damaged and demoralized us; third, that the confusion arising from the convergence of the advancing columns would not have occurred again; fourth, that the "works were very faulty in plan and very easy to take by a properly managed assault ": and last but not least, that the troops of the enemy were better than ours. The first of these assumptions is erroneous, the second greatly exaggerated, the greatly exaggerated third might have been verified but again might not the fourth is correct only within the limits and to the extent already explained and the last has no evidence to sustain it.

No one is more ready and willing than the writer to admit the excellence of the troops that fought us at Knoxville. They had few equals and I believe no superiors. But in making this admission, I do not abate one particle of my confidence in the valor and persistency of those who opposed them. They possessed those qualities in as high degree as General Longstreet's men or any others, and the succession of events had only served to improve their morale. It may fairly be doubted whether any disaster to our arms was imminent.

Again, the repulse may have been due to the existence of fewer faults in the works than supposed; to the measures adopted by us to remedy the faults which did exist; to the passive obstacles of wire entanglements, depth of ditch, and unusual relief of the parapet; to the enemy's error in deciding it to be unnecessary to provide scaling ladders for the storming party; and finally and emphatically, to a sufiicient garrison of the coolest, bravest, and most determined men. Each of these reasons seems to me to have contributed its share to the result, and some of them were surely of much graver moment than any of those assigned by the other side.

The successful resistance of the 29th did not lead to any remission of labor on our defenses. Work was continued by the troops with the energy that had characterized their efiorts thus far, but the enemy gave little indication of a purpose to do anything further upon their works of attack. On the 1st of December, large trains belonging to the enemy were seen moving to the eastward, and again on the 3d and 4th and on the night of the 4th his troops were withdrawn and the siege was raised. We had not yet heard the result of General Grant's operations at Chattanooga.

The conduct of the men who stood in the trenches at Knoxville cannot be overpraised. Half starved, with clothing tattered and torn, they endured without a murmur every form of hardship and exposure that falls to the lot of the soldier. The question with them was not whether they could withstand the assaults of the enemy, but simply whether sufficient food could be obtained to enable them to keep their places in the line. That they were not reduced to the last extremity in this regard is due to the supplies sent in by the loyalists of the French Broad settlements, who took advantage of Longstreet's inability to invest the place completely, and under cover of the night fogs floated down to us such food and forage as they could collect. (Source: Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: Being for the Most Part Contributions by Union and Confederate Officers,Volume 3, Part 2, edited by Robert Underwood Johnson, Clarence Clough Buel, 1888)

Tuesday, May 12, 2015

The New York 79th Volunteer Infantry in East Tennessee

New York State Military Museum Civil War Exhibit Opening 061 Some rights reserved

At Knoxville:

"A patrol was sent through the town to arrest all stragglers, quite a number of whom were brought in and sent to their respective commands. At three o'clock in the afternoon the regiment was ordered to report to Colonel Morrison at the front, but, while on the way there, was ordered back again to headquarters where tents were pitched for the night. Early on the morning of the 18th we joined the brigade at the front, where, however, we remained but a few minutes.

The principal defensive work was a fort half a mile west of the city and near the Kingston turnpike. It had been begun by the enemy during their occupancy of the town and was called by them Fort Loudon. But little progress had been made towards its completion, until it became evident that a retreat from Lenoir was necessary, when Captain Poe had taken measures to put the work in a defensive state. A large number of laborers had been employed night and day for that purpose, and when the troops arrived Lieutenant Benjamin, who was also chief of artillery, had been specially charged with its defense, and he requested that the Highlanders be assigned to duty as the regular garrison. His request being granted, we were ordered there and felt quite proud of the distinction conferred upon us. On reporting at the fort, positions were assigned the various companies by Lieutenant Benjamin. B, H and K were placed in the northwest bastion, the other companies being distributed at various points along the west and north fronts. Captain William Montgomery was in command of the regiment.

When we entered the fort an engagement was in progress, about a mile distant on the Kingston road, between the enemy's advance, under General McLaw, and our cavalry and mounted infantry, under General Sanders of the Twenty Third corps. The latter had been ordered to hold the enemy in check as long as possible, in order that the troops arriving might be placed in proper positions to resist an attack. For several hours Sanders command held the enemy at bay, but was gradually driven in by superior numbers, until the Confederates came within short range of the shells from our twenty pounders, when the engagement ceased for a while. In the afternoon the fight was renewed, and as the combatants were in plain sight about half a mile distant on the hill just below the Armstrong House, we watched the operations with a good deal of interest. Benjamin's guns sent several shells into the enemy's lines, but the opposing forces were so close together that our own men were in as great danger from the shells as were the enemy, and Benjamin's fire ceased.

McLaw had been ordered by Longstreet to push on and force his way into the city, but the task was a difficult one to perform. Reinforcements arriving, the enemy finally drove Sanders from his position, and we were prepared to give the rebels a warm reception, should they come within range of our rifles. General Burnside was looking over the parapet of the fort, watching the engagement, and when he saw Sanders driven back, he went from point to point along the west front of the fort, encouraging the men, advising us to 'keep cool. fire low, and be sure and hit something every time.' But the enemy contented himself with driving back Sanders force and occupying the crest of the hill. General Sanders, a gallant soldier, was mortally wounded and died a day or two afterwards, and our fort was named in honor of his memory. Just before dark we noticed that the high ground to the northwest of the fort and about a mile distant was also occupied by the enemy. Our pickets were now established on the north and west and about four hundred yards distant from the fort. The enemy had established his picket line about four hundred yards distant from our own. Thus ended the first day of the siege.

Now that our thoughts may be turned from the enemy for a moment, let us look at the situation within the Union lines. Knoxville is situated on the north bank of the Holston river, on a plateau about three quarters of a mile square, and bounded on the east and west by two streams called respectively First creek and Second creek. To the east of First creek, and a quarter of a mile distant, is an elevation called Temperance Hill, about two hundred and thirty feet above the level, and half a mile north of the river; on this elevation was built Fort Huntington Smith. To the east of this was Mabry's Hill, of about the same elevation, on the eastern extremity of which, and three quarters of a mile from the first named fort, was Fort Hill. On the north of the city, beginning at First creek, there were: Battery Billingslee (sp), Battery Wiltsee, Fort Comstock and Battery Galpin the latter flanked on the left by Second creek. To the west of Second creek was Battery Zoellner, and about seven hundred yards to the southwest of that was Fort Sanders, two hundred feet above the river. Six hundred yards south of Fort Sanders, and seven hundred yards from the river, was Battery Noble, while Fort Byington, on College Hill, defended an inner line, about six hundred yards east of Battery Noble. Between the river and Battery Noble on the west, or southwest, and the river and Fort Hill on the east of the city, were lines of intrenchments, while other lines connected the forts and earthworks already mentioned. Abattis and chevaux de frise were placed in front of many of the positions, and in front of Fort Sanders there was also a wire entanglement- placed there by Lieutenant Benjamin, the wires strung from stump to stump in order to obstruct and break up the lines of an attacking column. At the beginning of the siege, however, few of the works above mentioned had been begun, but soldiers citizens and negroes worked night and day till they were completed.

The troops were distributed as follows: Morrison's brigade stretched from the river in an irrregular line northwest to Fort Sanders, and the rest of the division from the fort to Second creek. Between that point and First creek the Second division held the line, while White's and Hascall's divisions of the Twenty Third corps stretched easterly to Fort Hill, and thence southwest to the river. South of the river, is a range of hills between three and four hundred feet high, commanding the town but most of the important points were occupied by portions of the Twenty Third corps, the enemy having batteries on two points only, and those about a mile and a half southwest of Fort Sanders.

There were no siege guns at any point on our lines. Roemer's light battery occupied College Hill; Benjamin's and Buckley's were in Fort Sanders; Gitting's and the Fifteenth Indiana batteries were placed on the line between Second and First creeks, and Simm's Twenty Fourth Indiana and Henshaw's and Shield's batteries, with one section of Wilder's, were distributed along the line held by White and Haskell, while the two other sections of Wilder's and all of Konkle's guns were south of the river. Two howitzers were placed at the bridge heads covering the crossing of the river. The East Tennessee and Virginia (or Georgia) railroad skirted the north side of the town and ran in a general southwesterly and northeasterly direction. All interest was centered on the lines north and west of the town.

The only part of Fort Sanders that was at all in a defensive condition when we entered it, was the west and a portion of the north fronts, and even in these no embrasures had yet been cut. From Captain Poe's report the following description of the fort is taken: 'It is a bastioned earth work, built upon an irregular quadrilateral, the sides of which are respectively one hundred and twenty five yards south front, ninety five yards west front, one hundred and twenty yards north front, and eighty five yards east front. The eastern front is entirely open and is to be enclosed with a stockade; the south front was about half done; the western front was finished except cutting the embrasures; the north front was nearly finished. Each bastion was intended to have a pan coupe.' Referring to the assault he states further: 'A light twelve pounder was mounted in the pan coupe (of the northwest bastion) and did good service. The ditch of the fort was twelve feet in width, and in many places as much as eight feet in depth. The irregularities of the site were such that the bastion angles were very heavy, the relief of the lightest one being twelve feet. The relief of the one attacked was about thirteen feet, and together with the depth of the ditch, say seven feet, made a height of twenty feet from the bottom of the ditch to the interior crest. From the fort the ground sloped towards the Confederates making a natural, but rather irregular glacis. All trees had been cut away from this glacis, the ground was thickly covered with stumps, the branches of trees had been utilized to form an abattis, and a wire entanglement had been made by stretching telegraph wire from stump to stump."
(Source: The Seventy-ninth Highlanders, New York Volunteers in the War of Rebellion, 1861-1865 (Google ebook), Press of Brandow, Barton & Company, 1886, William Todd, pp. 367-269)

Monument near the University of Tennessee campus

Saturday, May 9, 2015

A Mother's Day Post: Martha Elizabeth White




Martha Elizabeth White was born on April 10, 1882, in Rheatown, Tennessee, her father was James Randolph White and her mother was Mary Mary Ann Emily Good. Her grandparents were: Isaac White and ELizabeth J Morley and Hartsell Good and Martha Milburn.

She married James Ruble Bailes on August 16, 1903, in Greene, Tennessee. They were married by the Reverend T. D. Roe in the Methodist Church in Rheatown.
James Ruble Bailes was the son of John FM Bails and Delphia Coldwell. Her husband served in CO F of the 8th Infantry and was sent to Peurto Rico during the Spanish American War.
They had 13 children in 20 years: Minnie Eva, James Ralph, Walter Randolph, William Howard, Mary Ellen, Lynn, Lillian Geraldine, Henry Kenneth, Carl Ruble, Eleanor Hassie, Hartsell Luther, Frank White and Robert Wilford.

Mrs. Bailes endured much hardship during her life. Her younger siblings, Elbert Carl and Elma both died young. Elma and Carl were twins, Elma died shortly after she was born and Carl died of pneumonia in 1915. Her brother James Henry White was killed during WW I. Her children, James Ralph, Mary Ellen and Lynn died when they were very young.
She worked hard to care for her family and her home was the gathering place for our family for many years. She purchased a washing machine and did laundry for the barber shop where her husband worked and also for some of her neighbors.

Mrs. Bailes was not a Great Grandmother who rocked me sleep or read me bedtime stories. Yes, I called my Great Grandparents Mr and Mrs Bailes. I was the first great grandchild and no one ever suggested that I call them anything else.

Her son Howard comitted suicide on Farragut Ave, near Sharp's Ridge on 28 May 1942. Her sons: Walt, Carl, HL, Frank and Bob and grandson Walter (Buddy) all served in World War II. Hartsell Luther was killed on May 30, 1945 in Luzon, Phillipines.

HL and Howard

Through the years we continued to gather at their house, even though many of their children had larger homes. I am not sure how we managed to fit in their house- surely the laws of physics must have been stretched to the limits!   I remember the house being filled with people, but it never seemed crowded. We met at Christmas and sometimes just for Sunday lunch. The table was always overflowing with food, but what I remember most was seeing my Aunts and Uncles and my cousins. What a gathering of cousins! Sometimes we would take our plates and sit on the floor in the hallway while we were eating.

We also met at their home in times of sadness. It was a place to be with family when a dear friend or family member died too.

Her son, and my Grandfather died on March 13, 1957 at their family home and Mrs Bailes died on December 4, 1957. Her death was the first time that our family gathered at their home without her and her absence was sorely missed. I do think that she was proud of how everyone continued with the traditions that she had started.

Although I dont't have any warm, fuzzy memories to share (don't worry, I have many wonderful memories of my Aunts and Uncles), I did learn some very important lessons for her and for these, I am thankful.

I learned the importance of service and the meaning of sacrifice for our country. 

 Her Grandfather Hartsell Good was killed in the Civil War, her husband served in the Spanish American War and suffered side affects from an illness he contacted while serving over seas. She lost her brother during WW I, in a battle near Chateau-Thierry, France. She saw five sons and one grandson go off to war and only four sons return.

I learned the importance of perseverance and hard work. 

 Raising a family during the Depression was not easy and supporting a large family on a barber's salary meant that everyone had to work.

I learned the importance of faith.

I learned the importance of family: 

“Other things may change us, but we start and end with family” Anthony Brandt

I think that she must have learned a lot of these lessons from her Mother, Mary Ann Emily Good (Molly), because when Molly died, this is what her husband had engraved on her headstone:

"She was a kind and loving wife, a fond Mother and a friend to all."

I think this was true for Martha Elizabeth White Bailes too.

Tuesday, May 5, 2015

John Mason Boyd

Doctor John Mason Boyd-A Great Physician
Malford W Thewlis MD
"If all his deeds were flowers, the air be strong with perfume. If all his were melodies, a symphony would fill the sky." 

In Knoxville Tennessee, there is a beautiful monument at the gate of the Court House which reads 'Dr John Mason Boyd Our Beloved Physician Erected by a Grateful Public.' In Europe it is not uncommon to see monuments of great physicians, as in the city of Tours, where there is a monument to Bretonneau, Trousseau, and Velpeau. However the monuments of the latter type, were erected because the physicians were true scientists, but in the monument erected to Dr Boyd there was something which aroused unusual interest. In order that a physician have a monument erected by a grateful public, he must have possessed extraordinary scientific ability combined with the true love of his patients that characterized the older physicians more than they do the modern doctor. 
  Upon inquiring about Dr Boyd, I found that today, twelve years after his death, the inhabitants of this city speak of him with the tenderest feelings and point with pride to their noble physician.


Dr John Mason Boyd lived to do good, and this great physician and ever generous citizen did not use his power for the accumulation of wealth, but rather in the unselfish and untiring consecration of his life to the comfort, health and happiness of others. He was a native of Knoxville born in 1833 trie son of Judge Samuel Beckett Boyd. As he was the oldest of fourteen children, the duties of being head of the family devolved upon him after his father's death. The love and veneration always shown to him by his sisters and brothers tells how ably he performed his task. Dr Boyd was educated in the University of Tennessee and received his degree in medicine from the University of Pennsylvania, after which he located in Knoxville, where for fifty three years he ministered cheerfully and lovingly to the people of that city.
He also served his country well In the Civil War he joined the Southern Confederacy and went to the front as a regular surgeon of the Southern army. He served with distinction in Virginia, Georgia Tennessee, Alabama and other States. He was assigned to the Tennessee Relief Corps of the Confederate Army and served in the field hospitals during a number of the celebrated and most decisive battles of the civil strife, notably the battle of Seven Pines and at Manassas.
After the close of the Civil War, Dr Boyd went to New York and Philadelphia, where he attended clinics on surgery and medicine to further perfect himself in his profession, A number of years later he made two trips to Europe for special study, so he was ever on the alert to seize and use anything new to relieve suffering.
In 1859 Dr Boyd performed the third operation for supravaginal hysterectomy in the world's history and the first of the three operations thru which the patient lived. The sweep of his mind was broad, comprehensive and philosophic: his scholarly attainments were countless, his masterful resources were marvelous, he had a memory of astounding breadth and accuracy which made his brain a veritable storehouse for all the riches of wisdom. That he was always seeking modern to improve his efficiency there can be doubt. 

However, there are a great many who tho scientists never win hearts of their patients and when they die, their personality is not remembered. It is now twelve years since Dr Boyd died, yet today the public him with a remarkable degree of and enthusiasm. To mention name there is to bring to mind all good and charitable movements of Knoxville, and he found time, no matter busy to help them all. He was for number of years a member of the of Health and also a trustee of the of the University of Tennessee. His love for the young men and his desire to advance the cause of education in every way, inspired him to give much time to affairs of that institution. Much of work in this institution would not been accomplished had it not been for interest and every-ready help of his wife. She assisted by making broths for the fever patients, dainty trays to those students confined for a few days to their rooms and when a serious illness arose, she would request Dr Boyd to bring the young man to own home, and with her own ministrations would aid in restoring him health. Thus this noble couple together in perfect harmony. When the Knoxville General was established he was a member of staff, and was recognized as dean of consulting and practising physicians, and continued an enthusiastic and untiring worker until his death.
Among the institutions he was connected was nearer his heart than the Dumb School. He loved these unfortunate children and they loved him. For more than forty years he was president of the Board of Trustees. Dr Boyd studied the sign language in order he might not be handicapped in a thorough knowledge of the youngsters.

Dr Boyd continued his practice until two weeks before he died, and he could be seen at almost any hour of the day or night in almost any part of the city calling at the homes of rich and poor. He was always welcomed as physician and friend. In the long years of his active practice of medicine, more than the usual span of life for most doctors, Dr Boyd had performed almost every surgical operation known to surgery, and some them many, many, times and with a marked degree of success.

At Dr Boyd's funeral thousands and thousands paid tribute to him. Places of business thruout the city were closed and people of all classes paid their respects. Soon afterward a fund was started for the memorial and a beautiful monument was erected to him. Several buildings have been named for him and the high school in Knoxville was named in his honor.
(Source: Medical Review of Reviews, Volume 25, pp. 676-679)

Dr. John Mason Boyd Monument
Knox County Courthouse

Saturday, May 2, 2015

Civilian Life in East Tennessee during the Civil War Era

At home during the Civil War: Elizabeth Morley White, Mariah Bussell Coldwell and Martha Milburn Good

Isaac White and Elizabeth Morley moved to Hawkins County sometime after 1850. In 1858, Isaac White died and in 1862, their oldest son William died. When the Civil War started, Elizabeth was living with her sons Charlies, James and Henry Keene and her daughter Martha Vance. Both of her parents had died and her brother Henry H Morley was a soldier serving in 61 Tennessee Mtd. Infantry. (Pitts' Regiment. 81 Tenn. Inf.) in the Confederate Army. Her brother Stephen was commissioned an officer in Company D, Tennessee 8th Cavalry Regiment on 28 Sep 1863. Her brother William AF Morley 29th Regiment, Tennessee Infantry. She did have a brother, James Randolph Morley who a physician in Rheatown.

Some time before 1870, Elizabeth married William Tharpe. William was a widower and although it may have seemed like a good idea, combining two families was not easy. William signed his will on 17 November 1869 and on September 25, 1873, he added a codicil to will, adding that a separate house should be built for his daughter. William died in 1873. In 1877, Elizabeth sold the property owned by Isaac White: Elizabeth Tharp to JC Jones on May 26,1877. Heirs of Isaac White -Elizabeth Tharp, Charles B. White, James R White, Henry K White, Martha B White. 103 1/2 acres

After she sold this property, Elizabeth moved to Rheatown with her children and one of William Tharpe's servants. She was active in the Rheatown Methodist Church.

This next story reads like a movie script: a murder, a story of a family's survival set against the backdrop of the beautiful mountains in a remote area of Hawkins County during the Civil War. The tale of a husband and father who was murdered. The struggle of surviving during a war that took place at their back door. Add to that: missing gold, a dispute over a horse and a lawsuit over the handling of Thomas Kinchloe's estate that would take years to settle

Thomas Kincheloe Coldwell was murdered on his farm in November of 1861. James L Coldwell (nephew) was appointed administrator of Thomas K Coldwell's estate in March of 1862.The next Spring, his sons by his first marriage to Chloe Wheelock, James and Benoni traveled to Boston, Kentucky to join the Union Army. Neither of them survived the war. Benoni died near Nashville on February 22, 1863, and is buried in the National Cemetery there. James died in a field hospital near Triune, Tennessee on April 6, 1863. His gravesite is unknown.

Back home in Butcher's Valley, Mariah Bussell was struggling to provide for her children. She had only her daughters: Sallie, Delphia, Julia, Martha and Mariah to help. Mariah Bussell and her stepdaughter Deborah proved to be a capable match for James L Coldwell and the Union and Confederate soldiers.   They faced many problems in the settlement of the estate and a Deborah filed a lawsuit against the administrators of the estate. The faced daily struggles for their very survival.

When the estate was opened, it was determined that there were several gold coins, which Mariah claimed had be given to her by the father. The coins were too large to be divided at the time, so they were left with Mariah and never seen again. Family stories say that she buried them and used the money to help care for her children.

Rheatown Methodist Church

In Greene County, Martha Milburn, daughter of popular Methodist minister, William Elbert Milburn and Martha Frame married Hartsell Good, son of David Good and Hannah Hartsell. David and Hannah lived next door to Andrew Johnson's family on Main Street in Greeneville. Hartsell was a tinner before the war. Hartsell Good served in the 4th Reg Tennessee Infantry, Union Army. He died on 14 July, 1863 and is buried in the National Cemetery in Nashville, not far from where Benoni Coldwell is buried.
Martha lived in Greeneville with her sons David and Elbert Hatsell and daughter Mary Ann Emily, who was called Molly. Martha's father served as Chaplin for the 8th Regt Tennessee Cavalry and her brother, William Elbert Franklin Sevier Milburn served in the 12th Tennessee Cavalry, CO B, Union Army. They both survived the war and WEFS Milburn went on to become a lawyer. In this capacity, he represented many Union soldier's when they applied for pensions.

In 1870, Martha was living with her son Elbert and daughter Molly in Rheatown. William David is not listed in 1780, but in 1880, he is living with his mother and working as a mail agent. Elbert and his brother-in-law, James Randolph White, are both farmers. James R White married Mary Ann Emily Good and they are living with her Mother, along with daughter Minnie Hartsell White.