Monday, February 23, 2015

Thoughts of Spring

Tennessee Florist Convention in Knoxville 1912

Knox Nurseries

Ollie Bean Blackberries
AJ Nelson Strawberries
Rosecliff Nursery CJ McClung III Strawberries
CW Wise Strawberries

Empire Nursery Co Hodge & Deal Fruit

Fountain City
Charles Baum Grccnhouse Ornamentals
Fountain City Fruit Farm Strawberries
OH Tindell Nursery Co OH Tindell Fruit and Ornamentals

Lone Oak Nursery Co AJ McClain Fruit

GW Callahan Greenhouse
CW Crouch Greenhouse
AH Dailey Greenhouse
East Tenn & Miss Orchard Co CO Fowler Fruit
CM Emory Greenhouse
JRH Hilton Strawberries
Howell Nurseries Bruce Howell 10 Ornamentals
Wm A Jenkins
MW Kirby Strawberries
Knoxville Nursery Co NW Hale & Co Fruit and Ornamentals
Marble City Nursery Co AA Newson Fruit and Ornamentals
Benjamin Maynard Violets
AJ McNutt Violets
A Pope Privet

Thos C Schnicke Fruit and Strawberries

Powell Station
James N Hendrix Fruit and Strawberries
RH Hendrix Strawberries
Home Nursery Co S Dougherty Fruit
WJ McElroy Fruit
Standard Nursery Co RC Bell & Co Fruit

Source: Economic Entomology: Pamphlets, Volume 78, p. 25-26, 1912)

Friday, January 9, 2015

Knox County Post Offices 1876


A post office in the southeastern part Knox county 6 miles from Knoxville and 265 by rail from Nashville It is on the French Broad river and is the location the works of the Knoxville marble company It has a Methodist church academy district school. Corn, wheat and bacon exported Stage line to Knoxville. ME Huffaker postmaster. 


Ball Camp

A post office in the western part of county 19 miles from Knoxville and 250 by rail from Nashville. Concord on the E Va & Ga RR is the shipping point.


Beaver Ridge

A rural settlement of 60 persons near the western line of Knox county 12 miles from Knoxville in a rich and productive farming section the principal crops being corn, wheat, oats and barley. Beaver creek affords a never failing water supply for flouring and corn mills and a cotton gin. Contains a general store Methodist church Masonic hall and free and schools. Cereals and poultry and eggs marketed Mail four times a week, SD Teinart postmaster
Business Directory
Butler MDF
Cox Joseph & Son general store
Rule, Rev Matthew A (Methodist)
Trotter miller


Bull Run

The post office located at Heiskell's station a point on the Knoxville and Ohio railroad in Knox county, 14 miles northwest of Knoxville, the county seat. The place was first settled in 1868 has a population of about 150 and contains 1 grist mill, saw, shingle and lath mills, 3 stores, a Baptist church and good common school. Wheat, corn and oats are marketed. Mail daily W D Bittle postmaster
Business Directory
Bishop, J C station agent
Childress, CL grist mill and general store
Davison, Henry blacksmith
Graham, WA General Store
Jones, John T shoemaker
Cox general store
Presnell, EA blacksmith and wagonmaker
White, JB steam saw mill 


Campbell's Station

A post office located 2 miles from Concord a station on the line of the ET Va & Ga RR in Knox county and 14 miles from Knoxville. It has about 50 inhabitants and exports wheat, corn and produce and has a daily mail. WH Roberts postmaster 



A promising village of about 300 inhabitants on the Tennessee river and a station on the ET VA & Ga RR in the extreme west end of Knox county, 15 miles from Knoxville and 248 from Nashville. It contains a number of stores and shops, a hotel, a Cumberland Presbyterian church and a high school in charge of the Masonic Order. There are two flouring mills and a mill in the vicinity. Agricultural products embracing grain, hay, stock, bacon and eggs are exported in considerable quantities. Express Southern Mail, John W Boyd postmaster.
Business Directory
Barnhill, TC blacksmith
Boyd, John W Farm Implements Station and Express Agent
Calloway,_ miller
Childress, Wm mason
Crook, PF cabinetmaker
Davis, Rev BO principal high school 
Dowling, Hugh General Store
Haun, EW millwright
McLin, W 0 carpenter
McNutt, MW harnessmaker
Pate & Russell general store
Payne, Rev J Methodist
Pepper, RB grist and saw mill
Rodgers, ES physician
Rodgers, SC physician
Russell, Rev H Cumberland Presbyterian
Russell, WL flouring mill
Russell SL & Son general store
Saville, Mrs NE hotel
Stone, RT Druggist
West, Rev SB Cumberland Presbyterian 


A village of 150 people settled in 1870 and located on Fourth creek in the southwestern part of Knox county, 5 miles from Knoxville and 263 from Nashville by railroad. It has a steam saw mill, a wool carding machine, run by water power, and a free church. Iron ore, wheat, corn, oats and potatoes are the chief shipments. Mail daily IP Barger postmaster
Business Directory
Barger, IP General store
Helsley II carpenter
Kennedy, WL carding mill
Miller, C blacksmith
Milligan, Barton shoemaker
Wise, GW carpenter



A post office and station on the ET Va & Ga RR in the southwestern part of Knox county 10 miles from Knoxville and 253 east of Nashville by rail. It contains a flouring mill for which power is derived from Sinking creek also a general store, a wagon shop, a Methodist church and a good select school. Wheat, corn, oats, beans, peas and potatoes are shipped. The place was first settled in 1870 and has a population of 75. Mail daily RA Sterling postmaster

Business Directory
Dawson, RA physician
Gheen Bros wagonmakers
Murphy, Rev WB Methodist teacher
Sharp, Gilbert physician
Sterling, RK General Store
Walker & Hackney flouring mill

Gap Creek Post Office (no additional information)


Or Gravestown as it is locally called is hamlet of about 100 people in the part of Knox county 15 miles from to which point s for should be shipped. It is near the head Little Flat Creek from which power for grist and saw mill and a flouring mill derived. There is also a steam saw,  4 stores, 2 churches Baptist and and an academy in the place, Chief exports are wheat, corn, hogs, eggs etc. Mail 4 times a week. TJ Crawford postmaster
Business Directory
Campbell, JC general store
Cox, John general store
Crawford, TJ General Store
George, TWL miller
Gibbs & Neal steam saw mill
Rogers, Rev W A
Rotherford, Rev J H
Scott, Rev J R
Smith & Ousley General Store

Halls Cross Roads

A country post office in Knox county 9 miles from Knoxville the county seat and shipping point. Mail is received here 4 times a week, DL King postmaster


A country post office in the eastern portion of Knox county 11 miles from Knoxville, 2 miles from Strawberry Plains its railroad point on the ET Va & Ga RR and 275 from Nashville by rail. Wheat, corn and oats are the products and with poultry, butter, eggs etc the exports. Mail is received weekly. TP Rutherford postmaster and general merchant



A hamlet and post office in Knox county, 21 miles west of Knoxville and 250 by from Nashville. It is located on the Clinch river which is navigable for steamboats this point most of the year. It contains grist and saw mill Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist and Friends churches and 2 country stores. Population 30. It exports corn, wheat, oats, potatoes and bacon and has a weekly mail. Ship to Lenoirs on the ET Va & Ga RR. GF Simpson, postmaster
Business Directory
Burnett, Rev MDL (Baptist)
Gallaher, WB General Store
George JS & Bro cabinetmaker
Hedgecock, WE general store


A village and station on the ET Va & Ga RB in Knox county 10 miles of Knoxville and 275 by rail from Nashville. It was settled in 1820 and a grist mill 2 stores 8 churches a free a subscription school. The principal shipments are wheat and corn. Population about 100. Southern Express Co and daily mail. Wm C Bailey postmaster
Business Directory
Arnold, BR physician
Bailey, James W deputy sheriff
Bailey, Wm C General Store
Cardwell, WP general store
Carter, JM justice of the peace
Croft, Samuel tobacco mnfr
Portis, Frank shoemaker
Strong, J H Physician
Troutt, Wm miller
Wyrick, Alex blacksmith

Powell's Station

A settlement of 120 people and station the Knoxville & Ohio railroad in county, 10 miles northwest of Knoxville and 275 by rail from Nashville. It derives power from Beaver creek and contains a grist mill, Cumberland Presbyterian church and high school. Wheat, corn, oats, hay and potatoes are shipped. Southern express and daily mail. CW Groner postmaster
Business Directory
Bell, RM hotel propr
Brown, Rev JM (Cumberland Presbyterian)
Cooper, Prof SH school teacher
Fite, JA carpenter
Groner, C W & Co General Store
Mitchell, WC Wagonmaker
Munday, Robert boot and shoemaker
Perkin Prof W H school teacher
Presnell, Isaac blacksmith
Ragsdale, J N physician
Runyon, James blacksmith


Also known as Grangeville is a village of 100 inhabitants situated on the French Broad River in Knox county, 9 miles southeast of Knoxville. A tannery, harness shop, Methodist and Presbyterian churches and an academy are located here. Corn, wheat, bacon, poultry etc are exported. Mail twice a week. SG Bowman postmaster.
Business Directory
Bowman Kennedy & Co tanners boot shoe and harnessmakers
Bowman & Smith General Store
Kennedy, W S physician
Mills, Rev JS


A small village in the eastern part of Knox county 12 miles from Knoxville 3 from McMillan's station on the ET Va & Ga RR and 275 from Nashville. It has 2 Methodist churches and a graded school. Wheat, corn, oats, feathers and eggs are exported. Mail 4 times a week, Eli C Skaggs postmaster.
Business Directory
Arnold, BR physician
Gilmore & Robertson tanners
Green, SM blacksmith
Howell, J K boot and shoemaker
Richardson, Prof GW school teacher
Robertson, Rev JA (Baptist)
Skaggs, PH & Son general store
Skaggs, Prof EC school teacher


Spring Grove

A country post office in the 3rd civil district of Knox county 6 miles northeast of Knoxville and 3 from McMillan's station on the ET Va and Ga RR. Love's creek furnishes motive power for a grist and saw mill which with a steam saw mill and carding machine comprise the manufacturing interests. It has three churches Lutheran, Presbyterian and Union and district schools. The exports consist of grain, pork, beef, poultry, butter and eggs. Mail semiweekly. James A Clapp postmaster
Business Directory
Armstrong, RAL wool carding
Buffat, Augustus steam saw mill
Buffat, A grist and saw mill
Clapp, James A General Store
Cox, Rev George H (Lutheran)
Herron, Rev ES (Presbyterian)
Marshall, WLM physician


A post station in Knox county 4 miles southeast of Knoxville and 267 by rail from Nashville. It has a daily mail, J  Anderson postmaster

Thorn Grove

A village in the northern part of Knox county, 15 miles from Knoxville, 5 north of Strawberry Plains, its shipping point on the ET Va and Ga RB, and 275 by rail east of Nashville. It is the location of a tannery, grist mill, 3 churches Methodist, Baptist and Christian and a graded school, 3 general stores and some small mechanical interests are supported. Mail tri-weekly J H Roberts postmaster.
Business Directory
Ayres, Rev R 0 Methodist
Beaman, Prof TC school teacher
Brady, Rev J T Cum Presbyterian
Brooks, James A mechanic
Brown, WD General Store
Davis, Benjamin mechanic
Eakin, James E tanner
Eakin, WG boot and shoemaker
Lane, James boot and shoemaker
Long & Underwood general store
Morton, John mechanic
Randolph, Rev Gilmore Christian
Roberts, JH & Bro General Store
Rutherford, WP physician
Smith, Rev A Baptist
Smith, Rev WB Christian


A village of 200 inhabitants in the northwestern part of Knox county, 12 miles from Knoxville and 275 east of Nashville by rail. It contains a grist mill. saw mill and Baptist church. Exports corn, wheat and bacon. Mail once a week, Postmaster BM Zachary
Business Directory
House, saw mill
Jett, miller
Plirtrie, Job general store
Sutton, JW general store
Zachary, B M Physician

Source: Tennessee State Gazetteer and Business Directory: Link


View Knox County Post Offices 1876 in a larger map


Thursday, December 4, 2014

Rembering Family: Martha Elizabeth White



When Martha Elizabeth White was born on April 10, 1882, in Rheatown, Tennessee, her father, James, was 30 and her mother, Mary Ann Emily Good, was 23. She married James Ruble Bailes on August 16, 1903, in Greene, Tennessee. They had 13 children in 20 years. She died on December 4, 1957, in Knoxville, Tennessee, at the age of 75, and was buried there.

When she died, she left a valuable legacy to her family.  Was she famous? No  Was she rich? No  Then what was her legacy to her children.

Martha Elizabeth Bailes left her children:

A deep appreciation of the importance of family.

Our family gathered at their home in times of joy and times of sorrow.  We celebrated Christmas at their house every year, even when we were literally packed wall to wall.  I do not remember any complaints.  It was a joyous time of seeing all of your Aunts, Uncles and of playing with you cousins.

Even though our family has become too large to get together every year, we are still close.  I would like to think that as we gather with own families, that we still remember those wonderful times.

A shared belief in the importance of Church and Community

 Many of worshipped together at Lincoln Park Methodist Church.  Many of our parents and grandparents were married there.  Next to their home, this church was our most popular place to see family. Lincoln Park Methodist Church was the center of our community.

Some her family came to America to escape religious persecution in England.  They were Quakers, who settled in West Jersey in the late 1600's.

After the Revolutionary War, the family became part of the Methodist Church.  The Milburn family had the first Methodist ministers in our family and many of their descendants became ministers.

A long history of service to our country.

 She had four sons; Walter, Carl, H. L. Frank and Robert, who served during WW II.  She had two brothers; William Isaac and Jmes Henry who served in World War I.

Her Grandfather, Hartsell Good served in the Civil War, her G Grandfather, David Good served in the War of 1812 and her GGG Grandfather, John Milburn, was a Revolutionary War Patriot.

About Martha Elizabeth White:

In 1900, Lizzie White was 17 years old and lived in Greene, Tennessee with her father, mother, 3 brothers: Isaac, James Henry and Elbert and 2 sisters, Lula and Frankie.

Elizabeth White married J.R. Bales on August 16, 1903, in Greene, Tennessee.  They were married by Thomas D. Rowe, M.G.

In 1910, Martha E. Bailes was 28 years old and lived in Rheatown, Tennessee with her husband, James,  2 sons, Walter and William Howard and daughter Minnie Eva.

This was a difficult time in her life.  Two of her children died, Mary Ellen in 1911 and Lynn in 1912. Her brother, Elbert Carl died in 1915 and her brother, James Henry White was killed at Chateau-Thierry, France, while serving with the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.

In 1920, Martha E. Bales was 36 years old and lived in Knoxville, Tennessee with her husband, James, 4 sons: Walter, Howard, Kenneth and Carl, and 2 daughters: Eva and Geraldine.

Her Mother, Mary Ann Emily Good, who was called Mollie, died in 1926.  The inscription on her monument is one of my favorites, " She was a Kind and Affectionate Wife, a FOnd Mother, and a Friend to All." Mollie's father, Hartsell Good died during the Civil War.  Her Grandfather, William Elbert Milburn served in the Civil War too. 

In 1930, Martha E. Bailes was 47 years old and lived in Knoxville, Tennessee with her husband, James, 7 sons: Walter, Howard, Kenneth, Carl, Hartsell (H. L.),Frank and Robert, and 3 daughters: Eva, Geraldine and Eleanor.

Her father, James Randolph White, died on September 4, 1935 in Reatown, Greene County, Tennessee.

On April 1, 1940, Martha Bailes was 58 years old and lived in Knoxville, Tennessee with her husband, James, 4 sons: Carl, Hartsell, Frank and Robert, and 3 daughters: Eva, Geraldine and Eleanor.

Her sons: Walter, Carl, Frank and Robert served during World War II.  Her son Howard died in 1942.  H.L. was killed on May 30, 1945 in Luzon, Phillipines.


Family Marker in Lynnhurst Cemetery

Martha Elizabeth White Bailes' marker


Tuesday, November 11, 2014

Veterans' Day: Letters from Home

Civil War Letters

Civil War Letters from William E Milburn (1797-1877) to his son William E F Milburn. In September William EF Milburn enlisted in the 12 TN CAV, CO B, Union Army and on September 14, 1864 William E Milburn was mustered into Service by Capt. Paxton as a chaplin in the 8th Regt Tennessee Cavalry.

Knoxville Oct 8th 1864 
William E. F. Milburn
My Dear Son I got here on the 6th in Common helth. But with a Sad heart, from the fact I did not find you when I went to Nashville nor could not hear one word from you, I wrote 3 letters to you from Nahsville which I hop you have got I would not have taken $1000, not to have seen you But I could not for there was no train runing to Pulaskia and thought would not for some weeks--I could not wait. I will make all the ---tion I can to get you and Kelly with me in the eight Te. Cav. I think the Signs Pretty good if you Should live, I hope you will, I fear you will not--our troops think they will move up to Jonesboro without delay--I heard from home the first of this Old John Frake deid, our folks all well, I want you to write to me as soon as you can and let me know how you are and the boys I saw S. C. Shanks ajadent right from Charleton, S. C. he was well, But in a bad condition out doars in the sun but little to eat, My great fear is that you may be killed and not ready do not think my Dear boy that I think you are worse than other, no, I do not But my Hearts desire is that you may be Saved, as that is all at last.May God bless you and take care of you and all our boys--may he help you by his Spirit and grace to look to Christ and beleive that he is mor willing to bless you and save than I could be well you know that I would not let you Die if I could Save you--write to Evaline and the rest My Dear Boy do not fail to Read your Bible Say your Prayers and the Very God of peace Bless you 0, that we may meet on Earth and above all in Heaven, So, farewell, farewell, my Son--
I am yours in Parentel love
untill Death
William Milburn

World War I letters

World War I letters from James Henry White was born on October 9, 1892 in Greene County to James Randolph White and Mary Ann Emily Good. His enlistment was on March 14, 1918, when he was ordered to report to Camp Gordon, also see Camp Gordon. These are letters to his brother Isaac William, "Will," White. James Henry White was wouned by shrapnel and died on the battlefield on October 10,1918 in Chateau-Thierry, France. He served in Company G, 327th Infantry of the 82nd Division of the American Exponditionary Forces (AEF) 82nd Divsion at Chateau-Thierry, France in WW I, 82nd Division History

Bringing home WW I dead causes strong feelings in the US and in Europe: Link Bodies of War

Henry was brought home on September 4, 1921 and was buried with military honors in the family plot at Rheatown Cemetery.

WW II Letters

WW II Letters From Hartsell Luther, "HL," Bailes, Staff Sargent, 149th Infantry, 38th Infantry Division
HL was born on November 27, 1921 to James Ruble Bailes and Martha Elizabeth White. He enlisted at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia on August 10, 1942. Several of his brothers served in WW II: Walter, Carl, Frank and Bob served as well as future brother-in-law, Carl Everett and nephew Buddy Bailes.

I could not choose which one of these letters to add to this blog.  There are worried letters from parents, love letters from wives and girlfriends and cheerful letters for Aunts and Uncles, but the best letters are the ones that they wrote to each other.  These letters ask about the football scores and news from home and if they had seen or had had news from other Lincoln Park boys. Since Daddy was the youngest, he took over jobs left by the older brothers when the joined the Army.  Uncle Red asks Daddy to check on Virginia, who would later become my Aunt Virginia. Later the letters give information about who has returned home.

V mail envelope  

Pictures H L sent from the Pacific

Letter addressed to The Boys at Rose Drugstore

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Turkey and Hog Drives

The French Broad River: Photo credit: zen Southerland Some rights reserved Photo Link

At the end of suumer, farmers would round up their turkeys or hogs to get them ready for market. Usually hogs and turkeys were allowed to run run loose and forage for themselves in the warm summer months.

When the animals were sufficiently fattened for the long journey to market, the drovers would begin their long trip to the markets in the East. Some of the drovers came from as far away as Kentucky. In East Tennessee, these drives started from Greeneville, Rogersville, Dandridge and Knoxville. At these starting points, farmers with just a few animals would take them to town to sell to the drovers. The caravans of turkies and hogs shared the road with other travelers. Turkeys from Rogerville had to be ferried across the river and at other places as well.

These caravans of turkeys and hogs were an inconvience for other traveler, but they were like a circus coming to town for the little boys who watched the turkeys and hogs being marched down the main street of town with the men, with their whips cracking and their distinctive call urging them all. Many a young boy had daydreams about joining this circus-like caravan one day.

Photo credit: George Thomas Some rights reserved

Neither turkeys or hogs could travel very far in a day, so there was a need for places to stay and to buy food along the way. Little hog stands sprung up along the way that provided pens for the hogs and sold local corn for the hogs to eat. As traffic increased, some of these hogstands became taverns and inns, providing a stopping place for bothe drivers and other travelers. The drivers could also get a hot meal and a place to stay. Turkey driver had to find a suitable place for the turkeys to roost at night and be there to round them up again in the morning.

The paths generally followed old Indian trains along the French Broad River from Warm Springs to Marshall, Woodfin and on to Asheville. In Ashville the road crosses Pack Square in downtown Asheville, where drover had the opportunity to sell the turkeys or hogs, or continue along the the road that eventually led to the markets in Charleston, South Carolina.

Charleston Market Photo credit, adapted from the work of (L) Harvey Craft Some rights reserved and (R) J. P. Shannon Some rights reserved

More details and history:

The turkey and hog drives from East Tennessee to the markets in North carolina started before Tennessee became a state. On July 8, 1795 Governor Blount, of the Territory south of the River Ohio now called Tennessee, submitted to the Council of that territory several papers respecting the opening of a wagon road from Buncombe Courthouse in North Carolina to this Territory. (Source: Asheville and Buncombe County, Forster Alexander Sondley, Theodore Fulton Davidson, p. 104 ) The govenor of South Carolina proposed improvements to the Buncob Rd as early as 1796. The route followed old Indian Pathes along the French Broad River. As the popluation grew, there was a need for better roads.

"However, the best way to market their corn was by feeding it to hogs, cattle, and turkeys. ... forming an almost continuous string of hogs from Tennessee to Asheville."  Source: The Buncombe Turnpike - North Carolina Digital History

"The hogs were started to market only after they had consumed the growers supply of corn and had been fattened sufficiently to be butchered. (Burnett, p. 88) The fattening began as soon as the corn was sufficiently mature to feed, which was about the middle of August and reached the finishing stage in late October. Driving was concentrated in November. Between 1832-33, it is estimated that 5,oo head of hogs were driven each year (Cocke County) Tennessee Gazateer 1834

"From an early period, cattle and hogs driven to the markets of the Carolinas and Georgia were a principal form of export. Moreover, East Tennessee was a half-way point for Kentucky drivers passing through Cumberland Gap on their way to southern markets, ... Chattanooga, Knoxville, Greeneville, and Morristown were some of the concentration points for shipping of the different classes of livestock." Source: Bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Tennessee, State Agricultural and Mechanical College 1959

Hog stands ferry at Del Rio (see the railroad comes to Big Creek Del Rio the ferry was next to the schoolhouse. old Huff fort

Want to be a driver?
Requirements; be in good shape, have sturdy shoes and two pair of socks (Burnett, p. 91)

As traffic along these paths incresed, there as a need to improve these roads, in 1807, there was a petition to the state government to improve the the Saluda Gap Road. These roads were used by early travelers, as well as drovers.

North Carolina

* 1838 US Mail contract: Leave Knoxville every Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday at 6 am arrive at Warm Springs next days by 6 pm. Leave Warm Springs every Monday Wednesday and Saturday at 4 am arrive at Knoxville next days by 6 pm. (Source: index to documents printed by order of the senate of the United States, 1939, p. 243)
Warm Springs (Hot Springs now), was the gateway into North Carolina on the old drover's path and part of the old Buncomb Turnpike that ran along the French Broad River connecting Greeneville, Tennessee with Greenville, South Carolina.

In 1828, completion of the Buncombe Turnpike through Warm Springs connecting Tennessee and Kentucky to the East Coarst, with the best roads in the South, definitely put Warm Springs on the map. Farmer drove their stock through Warm Springs on their way to market and returned with goods and cash.

 In 1824, the North Carolina legislature to improve Buncomb Turnpike to Saluda Gap.  David L. Swain, Buncombe County legislator, in 1824 sponsored a bill “for the purpose of laying out and making a turnpike road from the Saluda Gap . . . by the way of . . . Warm Springs to the Tennessee line.” (Source: North Carolina Highway Historical Marker Program, Link). 

Along the Saluda River  Photo credit: Brenda Wiley Some rights reserved

It is estimated that as many as 160,000 hogs came through this path. Progress was tediously slow along this route and drivers would only be able to go six or eight miles a day before having to camp for the night. They depended on camps or inns along the way for a place to feed and pen their livestock and hopefully a hot meal and a warm place place for them to sleep as well. One of the most famous of these was the Alexander Inn in Alexandria, North Carolina.
Another popular place to stay was Sherrill's Inn

An outline geological map of Tennessee, including portions of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia


South Carolina

Poinsett Bridge Photo Credit: (L) Stephen Duckworth, (M) cmh12315fl, (R) markemark4,

"Greenville was then not only a place of resort during the summer months but a thoroughfare of travel from the west during the winter Droves of horses mules and hogs from Tennessee and Kentucky poured through the Saluda gap down the Buncombe road to Greenville and from this point were distributed through the State Every five or six miles along the Buncombe road and also below Greenville were taverns or houses of entertainment where many fortunes have been made from this year round travel The old houses are still standing many of them but their customers and their prestige have departed. (Source: The Greenville Century Book: S. S. Crittenden, p. 45 Link)
"Then too even as early as 1800 stock raisers of Kentucky and Tennessee had begun to drive their hogs and horses and cattle in large droves through Buncombe County to the markets of South Carolina and Georgia This species of travel greatly increased when the Buncombe Turnpike was opened To such an extent was this increase that at the proper season of the year one passing along that road in daytime was scarcely ever out of sight and hearing of one or more of these droves Even turkeys were driven to market in the same way the drivers using whips with pieces of red flannel tied to the end of the lash At one period there passed through Asheville in these droves every year from 140,000 to 160,000 hogs in the months of November and December For the entertainment of these drivers and their droves taverns sprung up along the road at about every five miles and their capacities were often taxed to the utmost The country raised the corn which in enormous quantities was required to meet the demands of this extensive business This brought considerable profits to the farmers the merchants and the innkeepers and prosperity to the entire community The business of driving stock continued though in decreasing quantities until about 1870 when it ceased Railroads had increased everywhere and furnished the stock raisers of Kentucky and Tennessee cheaper and quicker methods of reaching the markets with their products." (Source: The Greenville Century Book: S. S. Crittenden Link p. 168)

A rememberance of hog drovers:
All of us had ambitions in those
days and life has not turned cut precisely as we expected.
My earliest and fondest ambition was to be a hog
driver. Henry Young will remember
with what excitement the whole com-
munity was thrilled when the news
came that a drove of Tennessee or
Kentucky hogs were on the way from
Donaldsville, and with what enthu-
siasm the grand men were hailed as
with their "ho-ho-ho" they cracked
their lougo whips in the air and drove
their squealing, grunting victims down
to Hawthorne's lot for sale and sacri-
fice. But the hog drover has passed
out, and the cookings of the melts on
red hot stones, and the blowing up of
the bladders, and the souse and the
sausage, and the cracklings are only
a memory in those advanced times
of the stockyard and the combination
(Source: The Anderson intelligencer. (Anderson Court House, S.C.), 11 Jan. 1905. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.

Monday, October 27, 2014



This was my favorite place.

Walking around town


More history!
Loudon is a city with a lot of potential.  A nice layout for the town and it is very easy to take a walking tour.  It could certainly benefit by having additional places to shop.

The Carmichael Inn is a very nice building, but it is very close to the bridge and surrounded by concrete, so the site is not very appealing.  I looks at a very large fire station across the street.  The station is very nice and modern, but I would think that Loudon could have found another location for it and used this property for a riverfront development project.  The Carmichael Inn seems to closed and there do not seems to be any other businesses in this area.  It was sad to see such an obvious missed opportunity.

Carmichael Inn from Google maps

Lakefront area from Google maps

Map Link

Monday, October 20, 2014

Tennessee Schools in 1915

East Tennessee Schools, my thanks to Pam Mulinix for the use of her photos

Lots of improvements were underway in Tennessee schools:  


Standardizing  textbooks:

Haliburtion's Primer and Haliburton's First reader were recommended for the first grade.

Cover of Haliburton's First Reader, digitized by Google
Read Haliburton's First Reader Here

Improving school buildings:

More school buildings were being built and some of these schools were consolidated schools (combining two or more smaller schools). Consolidated schools were made possible by the use of school wagons. Local farmers were hired to drive the children to school. More of the school systems were starting to build brick schools too.
Boys' Corn Clubs were very popular. Read more about Corn Clubs

Moses School, Knoxville (photo shows later addition)

Modern desks
One room school circa 1910, showing wooden plank desks
Photo Credit: Derek Bruff, Some rights reserved

Increasing school year:

Carter was able to run some consolidated schools for 8 months.
Hamblen County 6 months
Henry County 6 months
Roane County 8 or 9 months
Hancock County 5 months
Hardin 4 months
Grainger 5 months and one week
Greene increased from 4 ½ to 6 months
Maury 8 months
Meigs County needs better resources to be able to run their schools for 6 months

Adding district school libraries:

Claiborne County had the most ambitious plan:

The Items of Standardization as printed below have helped our schools more than anything. The teachers unanimously adopted the following items of standardization for every school in Claiborne County at the County Institute:
1 School graded
2 Library and bookcase
3 House painted repair roof doors windows and locks
4 A flag for every school
5 Cooler and individual drinking cups
6 Time piece clock preferred
7 Globe maps blackboard erasers and waste baskets
8 Broom cluster sprinkler or oil floors
9 Cloak room or racks for hats and wraps
10 Daily schedule posted including study and recitation periods
11 Two pictures well framed and an additional picture each year
12 Call bell for class use
13 Proper seating
14 Proper ventilation
15 Proper heating stove jacketed 16 School improvement club
17 School pig – Who doesn't love a school pig?
18 Activity in Church and Sunday School
19 Attendance at Teachers Meetings
20 Taking and reading at least one educational journal
21 Minimum of three public gatherings
22 Visiting every home or reason for failure
23 No tobacco or alcoholics used by teachers or pupils
24 Personal supervision at play time
25 Neat personal appearance of teacher
26 Flowers on yard table or in window
27 Neat school grounds
28 Sanitary out houses
29 Orderly assembling and dismissing of pupils
30 Reading of the Bible at opening exercises
31 Teachers report to member of Board and Superintendent when absence is necessary
32 Neatly kept register with daily roll call
33 Domestic arts at home or school two exhibits of work from at least one half of the girls
34 Manual training at home or school an exhibit at close of school from at least one half of the boys
35 Inventory showing everything received or added during the year
36 An exhibit to the County Fair

The opening day of the County Fair was given over entirely to the school children of the county. Public school pupils took part in the following contests: Reciter's Declaimer's, Bird House Contest for the boys manual training, Apron Contest for the girls domestic arts. , Prizes were also given for the best General School Exhibit of the first three grades, also for the best General School Exhibit of the grades beyond the third.

 Our slogan for this year has been, “ A Library and School Improvement Association for Every School.”